Thursday, May 21, 2020

Criminals And Their Crimes By Mark Jones - 1640 Words

Mark Jones (2009) has written a book, not only for those seeking a degree in criminal justice, but also for Christians, that has been carefully researched and written with the goal of uncovering 25 Biblical â€Å"criminals† and their crimes. He provides a deep and thought provoking message with each story. In the book, Criminals of the Bible, Jones (2009) begins each lesson with an excerpt of the scriptural reference for the crime being discussed and then gives a short biography of the principle characters before discussing the legal, social, and political definition/context of the crime during the particular era that it took place. Then he goes a step farther by writing about the same crime viewed through today’s modern, legal, social, and political lens, ending each chapter with a lesson that can be learned by the reader. The word â€Å"criminals â€Å" is used loosely in his book because not all the individuals that Jones (2009) writes about were guilty of the crime they were accused of, or the crime committed is not necessarily considered a crime today. For example, Jesus is identified as a criminal in the New Testament for blasphemy; a crime that he did not commit. However, Jones (2009) still includes the infamous criminals Cain and Jezebel, who are indisputably guilty of the crime he and she committed of murder and subornation of perjury. Through Jones’ (2009) writing, he reminds his readers just like the characters illustrated in his book, everyone is not without error andShow MoreRelatedDNA Profiling Essay example1376 Words   |  6 PagesDNA typing has played a major role in the criminal justice system. The law enforcement community uses DNA profiling to rule out or identify suspects. Unlike hair microscopy, bite mark comparisons, shoe print comparisons, and firearm tool mark analysis, DNA typing has been developed through massive scientific research and has undergone meticulous scientific evaluation (Innocence Project) . DNA is a foolproof method of identifying a perpetrator of a crime. Like fingerprints, DNA is unique, withRead MorePolice Legitimacy and Accountability Essay1300 Words   |  6 Pagesto attend to the streets unarmed was employed to reassure the public that the police were not to be feared (Waddington and Wright, 2010). Ultimately, concerns derive from the belief that the police are completely ineffective when dealing with gun crimes (Farrell, 1992: 20). However, whilst arming police with guns can act as a protector when on duty it can also cause an increase in police misconduct. This issue will be discussed throughout this essay. Firstly, it is important to consider that policingRead MoreIs The Technology Behind Forensics Reliable?1654 Words   |  7 PagesTechnology behind Forensics Reliable? The scientific examination of evidence in criminal cases found in a crime scene is called forensic science. Forensic scientists use the same technology, tools and methods used by other scientists doing other types of research, including microscopes, computers, and lasers. As forensic science has advanced over the years, so has the ability to gather evidence and solve crimes. At crime scenes, lasers provide lighting to track blood sample that not visible to theRead MoreRace and its Implications in the Criminal Justice System1008 Words   |  5 Pagesissue within the United States and most predominantly the criminal justice system. Racial tension in America is often thought of as being white versus black, even though that is not in fact the case. African-Americans view the system as favoring whites while trying to keep them at the bottom. While whites claim that the criminal justice system is colorblind, blacks clearly do not feel this way; whites underestimate the racial divide in th e criminal justice system (Bikel, 2005). The highly publicized OJRead MoreThe Process of Criminal Profiling as it Pertains to Serial Killers1224 Words   |  5 PagesThe process of criminal profiling as it pertains to serial killers is extremely interesting and much more common than one would first think. This study deals with the research into the developmental and psychological approaches to serial killers. In the process of studying these offenders, researchers have discovered that crime scene manifestations of behavioral patterns enabled the investigators to discover much about the offender (Jones The Process of Criminal Profiling When Applied To A SerialRead MoreTattoos Essay1108 Words   |  5 Pagesself-expression in many countries around the world (Sanders, 1988;Stuppy, Armstrong, Casals-Ariet, 1998; Armstrong, Masten, Martin, 2000; FrederickBradley, 2000). Tattoos have been around for years they were once used to identify slaves, seaman, criminals and others who made th eir association to a particular group. Tattoos have always had a negative connotation attached to it. There seemed to be a shift in popularity as Americans seen more and more celebrities sporting tattoos. At one point, tattoosRead MoreEvaluate the usefulness of Marxist theory to our understanding of crime and deviance1201 Words   |  5 PagesEvaluate the usefulness of Marxist theory to our understanding of crime and deviance (40 marks) Synopticity - Crime Deviance sociological theory Marxist explanations of crime and deviance, like their work on other areas like the family and education, rest on an economic and structural analysis of society that sees a class struggle between the proletariat and the bourgeoisie. This struggle comprises the attempts by the proletariat to free themselves from the domination of the bourgeoisieRead MoreJuvenile Offenders And The Criminal Justice System1307 Words   |  6 Pagesis and how do we define it. According to The Free Dictionary recidivism is defined as â€Å"The behavior of a repeat or habitual criminal.† Juvenile offenders are studied on the re-offense that will occur and it is said that from 70% to 90% of offenders will re-offend. In the light of the criminal justice system and recidivism there is not actual consensus on what a criminal recidivism counts as, for example whether it counts as a repeat probation violation. National data that exist proves that 6 outRead MoreThe Second Amendment Of United Nations Const itution1649 Words   |  7 Pagesfourth amendment is excluded in the criminal proceeding. This amendment is also applicable in the case of electronic search and seizures. Any evidence of crime found on the electronic devices like computers and text messages can also be used by law enforcement. 2. Here is a list of things what law enforcement officers can do while searching a car: A. Perform a search on the suspect without a warrant if they were in â€Å"hot pursuit†, who is fleeing the scene of a crime. B. Law enforcement officers areRead MoreAssess the View That Crime Is Functional1683 Words   |  7 Pagess Assess the view that crime is functional, inevitable and normal. (33 marks) Within the sociological perspectives of crime and deviance, there is one particular approach which argues that crime is functional, inevitable and normal. This sociological perspective, Functionalism, consists of Emile Durkheim’s work on crime and deviance. His main argument was that ‘crime is normal’ and that it is ‘an integral part of all healthy societies’. This perspective views crime and deviance as an inevitable

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Cancer Treatment Centers Of America - 933 Words

Cancer Treatment Centers of America is one of the main national networks when it comes to cancer care. Their method is to treat the whole person, not just the tumor in a patient’s body (Bonner). Complex and advanced-stage cancer is a specialty of the Cancer Treatment Centers of America (Bonner). They not only treat their patients, but provide many different kinds of support, whether it is nutritional counseling or mind-body therapy (State of Washington). The oncologists are not the only ones informed, the patients and caregivers are given as many details as possible (Bonner). Patients then know every option and can make informed decisions for themselves (Bonner). The CTCA has a process made up of approaches, evaluations, personalized care, improving patient experience, and many other components (Bonner). Bonner says that each approach targets a specific problem that the CTCA is capable of aiding with. There is the integrative approach, where the goal is to enhance their distribution of care to their patients (Woodman). For example, the CTCA offers both conventional treatment, and integrative therapies (Bonner). The conventional treatments such as, radiation, chemotherapy, immunotherapy and surgery are done in order to remove cancerous tissue, save the use of normal functions, boost the amount of comfort as much as possible and uphold their nutritional status (Bonner). Bonner states that the CTCA uses integrative therapies in the hopes that patients will be able to fightShow MoreRelatedCuban Resolution to Lung Cancer1430 Words   |  6 Pages[Type the company name] | Cuban Revolutionary Lung Cancer Vaccine | | Introduction Every year many people of different ages suffer and die worldwide from different types of cancers. An estimate made by the American Cancer society states that, in the US alone, in 2014 cancer killed 585,720 and lung cancer was responsible of 159,260 deaths (Deadliest Cancer Coalition, 2014). Lung cancer has become the leading killer cancer and finding better ways to treat it has become a priority for manyRead MoreEssay On Health Care743 Words   |  3 PagesAccording to the American Cancer Society, men in the U.S. have a lifetime cancer risk of 53.5 percent, while the risk for women is 47.5 percent. That is approximately one in two men and one in three women that are expected to be diagnosed with cancer. Furthermore, the American Cancer Society says that in 2017, nearly 13 percent of all cancers will be rare cancers. Statistically, our company of 1,000 employees could see 13 employees facing a rare cancer diagnosis. Our organization must choose anRead MoreLung Cancer: The Unbiased Killer Essay examples1712 Words   |  7 Pages Cancer is known as an unbiased killer that knows no race, age or sex of its victims. Doctor Nader (n.d.) states, â€Å"The disease lung cancer is known as the number one cause of cancer related deaths in the United States.† (Lung Cancer Information). Lung cancer takes millions of lives each year, sometimes without the slightest warning. According to The Green Sanctuary (2009), â€Å"The cancer may often be discovered during a routine chest X-ray or CT scan as a small solitary mass.† (What is LungRead MorePhysical And Treatment Of Cancer1556 Words   |  7 Pagesassociated with the study, diagnosis and treatment of various forms of cancer. The Memorial hospital accommodates 471 beds, a 72,000-square-foot surgical center and state-of-the-art outpatient treatment center (Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, 2015c). MSK houses more than 35 core facilities with research being conducted in over 120 laboratories. Core facilities are dedicated to the development of scientific technology that aids in the study and treatment of cancer. Additionally Gerstner Sloan KetteringRead MoreLeukemia1485 Words   |  6 PagesRunning head: LEUKEMIA 1 Leukemia Maryam Kamber Eastern Illinois University LEUKEMIA 2 Leukemia is a cancer of blood cells, specifically white blood cells that are responsible for fighting infection. However, the abnormal cells in leukemia do not function in the same way as normal white blood cells. Leukemia cells continue to grow and divide, eventually crowding out normal blood cells. TheRead MoreBreast Cancer Community Resources Essay887 Words   |  4 Pages Breast cancer is the predominant form of cancer diagnosed in America women, second only to skin cancer and the primary cause of cancer deaths, surpassed only by lung cancer. 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All kind ofRead MoreMedical Health And Medical Tourism1596 Words   |  7 PagesImagine if you were in need of medical attention that you could not afford because of where you live or the doctor nearby did not have standardized treatment for your diagnosis. What would you do? Would you continue to seek treatment locally or find somewhere else to receive cheaper, proper care? Most people would want to be taken care of by a doctor who knows what he or she is doing and if it saves money at the sam e time, it is a hard deal to turn down. Traveling to seek medical attention is betterRead MoreStress And Cancer : Causes, Treatment, And Role Of Lifestyle Plays Essay1224 Words   |  5 PagesStress and Cancer Disorder; Causes, Treatment, and Role of lifestyle plays Background information Stress does not produce cancer, but it decreases or weaken the immune system, then a person not able to control or fight cancer disease. Cancer increases many psychological difficulties for the client’s family member, physicians, and other groups of the cancer care team. For example; parents of a child that diagnosed with cancer is very stressful than compared, who not diagnosed with cancer. ParentsRead MoreThe Mayo Clinic Cancer Center1090 Words   |  5 Pages1. I chose the Mayo Clinic in Rochester, MN because of their cancer research. The Mayo Clinic Cancer Center ranks in the top tier of cancer centers in the United States for cancer research, treatment, and education. Specialists at Mayo Clinic also have extensive experience in the diagnosis and treatment of every kind of cancer. My mom and dad both died of cancer and my aunt is battling cancer now. Children s Healthcare of America – One reason I chose this healthcare organization is the fact that

Visualising Alternate Futures of a City Free Essays

string(35) " mostly incognizant of their work\." The excitedly excessive secret plans of future, with air lanes clicking with winging vehicles and keen practical existences has ever struck a chord in our Black Marias. The appeal of these phantasmagoric scenarios have survived non merely in architecture, but elsewhere and largely so in films. It is through films that the uncommon feeling can be encountered with the most dynamic result. We will write a custom essay sample on Visualising Alternate Futures of a City or any similar topic only for you Order Now But what is it about these future landscapes set out by movie shapers that engages us so much? This can be best stated by what Nicolai Ouroussoff said in ‘Future Vision Banished to the Past ‘ diligently equaling the bulldozing of Nakagin Capsule Tower, â€Å" †¦ like all great edifices, it is the crystallisation of a far-reaching cultural ideal. Its being besides stands as a powerful reminder of waies non taken, of the possibility of universes shaped by different sets of values.† For pupils like me who are occupied in the perceptual experience and enquiry and architecture of infinites, and in the comprehension of people utilizing these infinites, I presume it to be sensible to state that we oft view these infinites from another’s position, but overlook their context and portraiture. We can state that metropoliss are touchable composings, but as Lefebvre ( 1974 ) comments, the societal building of metropoliss and topographic points is a critical component in how people see the environments that surround them. Representations of topographic points evoke the imagined every bit good as the existent ; Calvino ( 1974 ) in his Invisible Cities provinces, â€Å"The oculus does non see things, but images of things that mean other things.† The metropolis and its portraiture in film provide alone vantage points from which we can deconstruct public infinites in ways that long-established scientific disciplines do non let us. The metropolis is a character. Its history is romanticized. Its hereafter is fantasized. Its present signifier contains at one time a inactive record of its history and the dynamic elements which shape its hereafter. The character of a metropolis is determined by a synthesis between its physical construction and its societal skin color it evolves out of a duologue between the forces of past and present. It expands, keeping its ain signifier in memory while being thrust into an unsure hereafter. And now, to this noise of forces at work on the character of the metropolis comes a new voice. One which brings vision to the procedure of development: movie images and future environments. Architects and contrivers have traditionally focused attending on the present physical and societal demands of the urban environment. With the dynamic technological and societal alterations of the 19Thursdayand 20Thursdaycentury it became progressively necessary to gestate the hereafter of the metropolis beyond the incremental alterations which had characterized its historical development. While clearly a self-aware act of religion in the viability of the metropolis as a cultural establishment, future visions were besides an avowal of our possible to make the hereafter. We can foretell economic impacts and industrial end products, forecast population tendencies etc but statistics do non make a vision for the hereafter. The procedure of visualizing alternate hereafters of a metropolis is phenomenon specific to the 19Thursdayand 20Thursdaycenturies. The heritage of this modern-day signifier, born out of the extremist transmutations of the industrial revolution emerged in the mid-19Thursdaycentury as an intrinsic procedure in determining the signifier of the metropolis. Presented though a scope of formats- literature, pulling media and in movies, these visions created a agencies to help determination doing about the hereafter of the metropolis. These images represented theoretical, bad or even fanciful visions of what the metropolis could be. In the development of the pre-industrial metropolis, the hereafter was basically an extension of the yesteryear. In the 19Thursdaycentury, the hereafter of the metropolis took on an individuality of its ain which could be moulded by the visions of its society. For the first clip the urban environment was conceived as a moral force for without a unequivocal hereaf ter, its society jointly engaged in the procedure of its ain development. The demand for happening an appropriate hereafter of the metropolis became a procedure of contriving the hereafter of the metropolis. In 1939 New York Worlds Fair, inspired by the heroic poem them, â€Å"Building the World of Tomorrow† , presented an array of futuristic images and signifiers. The hereafter of the metropolis was detailed in the â€Å"Futurama† , a huge scale theoretical account of a typical urban Centre in the twelvemonth 1960. Produced by industrial interior decorator Norman Bel Geddes, this exhibition was to act upon a coevals of urban contrivers. The hereafter of a metropolis continues to a subject of literature and architectural rendition. Following traditions established modern-day visions while limited in public handiness, continue to propose their viability in determining our construct of the urban hereafter. Although supplying an of import function in our apprehension of the metropolis up to this really twenty-four hours, print media is inherently limited in its range and influence. Gesture images have the potency for rendering the hereafter in such a provocative new manner. Unique to this medium are three mechanisms which empower movie with an exceeding ability to convey thoughts. The first relates to the indispensable nature of the movie experience. While demanding of the spectator a suspension of incredulity, film creates a province of head which heightens the world of the clip and topographic point rendered in the movie. Although non a replacement for real-world experiences, the consequence of the movie is to capture the kernel of a narrative and render in a touchable context. By leting us to ‘live’ in the hereafter as if it already existed, movie provides an chance to measure the societal and physical effects of a peculiar vision. A 2nd property of film is handiness. Cinema is a democratic medium which invites engagement by a broad public audience. The visions of designers and other interior decorators working in print media communicate chiefly to other professionals go forthing the populace mostly incognizant of their work. You read "Visualising Alternate Futures of a City" in category "Essay examples" Third, the genre of scientific discipline fiction provides a format for non-traditional interior decorators to go on prosecuting in the procedure of visualising the hereafter of the metropolis. While artistic visions of the hereafter were popular in the 19Thursdaycentury, the consequence of their work began to worsen with the bend of the century. The projections of designers and other traditionally responsible for the signifier of the metropolis began to take clasp in the early portion of this century. While supplying a more rational mentality on the hereafter, these visions besides began to take the signifier of existent proposals for the metropolis. Within the kingdom of scientific discipline fiction film, managers, set interior decorators, industrial interior decorators and host of other ‘visual futurist’ could prosecute in suggesting alternate hereafter for the metropolis. In researching the impact of movie, it is of import to understand that visions of the hereafter in every medium are plants of fiction. In developing a model for the rendition of a narrative, movie creates a scene in clip and topographic point. Essential to our apprehension of the narrative, the physical environment of the movie typically organize a background to our events which are more meaningful. In movies which with future environments, the scene may go every bit of import as the events which occur within it. The coming of movie allowed society to research possible hereafters are placed in the class of Science fiction. Although a cinematic extension of traditional airy projections in other media, the genre of scientific discipline fiction movies have been misunderstood and delegated to the function of phantasy. The purpose of this survey is to research movies which focus on the physical and cultural facets of the metropolis. While in many instances films suggest progresss in scientific discipline and engineering, it is clearly non the primary motive within the context of the narrative. However they are categorized in the cinematic medium, specific sci-fi movies have had a voltaic consequence on our construct of urban hereafter. Blending constructs and images from disparate sources- traditional renditions of architecture and urban design, progresss in scientific discipline and engineering, art, literature and other medium from the 19Thursdaycentury, these movies created a vision which influenced the signifier of the metropolis in the 20Thursdaycentury. In following the nature of this influence, it is possible to associate constructs and images from specific movies straight to construct illustrations in the metropolis. For illustration, the perpendicular graduated table and fictile articulation of the interior infinites in the movieThingss to Come ( 1936 )is strikingly similar to atrium infinites of the hotel developed by the Hyatt corporation along the east seashore of United States of America. However, this attitude underestimates the productive consequence these movies have on our apprehension of the hereafter. The influence of these visions affected both the general populace and those professionals involved in the design of the metropolis. In organizing public outlooks about the hereafter, these movies provided a benchmark which professional interior decorators are obligated to react to. â€Å"As the mist began to clear† , wrote German manager Fritz Lang on his first visit to Manhattan in 1924, â€Å"a metropolis of huge proportions began to emerge. Filled with visible radiation and energy. The looming steeples of edifices pierced the clouds while everyplace people and machines raced about†¦Ã¢â‚¬  For Lang, the metropolis of New York became a symbol for the societal struggles built-in in a modern metropolis, and the inspiration for provocative urban vision he was subsequently to show in his movie. While there exists a scope of Science fiction movies which articulate the formal composing of the future metropolis in deepness, two illustrations possibly be singled out for the intelligence and influence of their vision, every bit good as the contrasting historical places which they occupy in the development of this of this genre of movie devising. Viewed together, the movies Metropolis ( 1927 ) and Blade Runner ( 1982 ) encompass virtually the full spectrum of cinematic visions of the metropolis. In these movies the metropolis emerges as an built-in character within the model of the narrative. It is the really nature of this character- both the strength of its physical scene and the peculiar relationship which the histrions have to this environment, which create a realistic context for conceive ofing the hereafter of a metropolis. The physical and societal urban environment which these two movies undertaking is at one time familiar and radically different. The kineticss generated by these enigmas gives the movies a 3-dimensional texture, a quality which moves the experience of the movie beyond the single images it represents. Fritz Lang’s vision of the metropolis inCitiesestablished film as the unequivocal medium for jointing the hereafter of the urban environment in the 20Thursdaycentury. The subject and ocular linguistic communication of the movie have influenced virtually every other movie on the topic to day of the month. The urban hereafter ofBlade Runner,a vision of Los Angeles in the twelvemonth 2019 is borrowing in subject and image fromMetropolis,the usage of engineering and modern-day production techniques setsBlade Runnerapart from other movies of its coevals. In developing an apprehension of the mechanisms which consequence alteration in the composing of the urban environment, it is clear that movies play an of import function in determining its hereafter. The demand for visualizing the hereafter, emerging out of the societal and technological transmutations of the industrial revolution, found an appropriate vehicle for look in the modern-day medium of scientific discipline fiction film. Bibliography Arnheim, Rudolf, Film as art, UoC Press, 1957 Banham, Reyner, Theory and Design in the First Machine Age, MIT Press, 1960. , Beck, Geogary. City in the image of scientific discipline fiction film, MIT Press, 1986 Ferriss, Hugh, The Metropolis of tomorrow, Oxford, 1929. Jensen, Paul, The Cinema of Fritz Lang, Barnes A ; Company, 1969 Tewdwr-Jones, Mark, Modern Planning on Film: Re-shaping Space, Image and Representation, 2013 How to cite Visualising Alternate Futures of a City, Essay examples

Sunday, April 26, 2020

Technology of Digital Graphics Cards Essay Example

Technology of Digital Graphics Cards Essay There are various formal definitions that explain what a graphics card is. Wikipedia (2015) states online that a graphics card; also known as a video card or adapter, display card, graphics board, display adapter, graphics adapter or frame buffer; â€Å"is an expansion card which generates a feed of output images to a display such as a computer monitor.† This is a pretty basic definition, yet we can define a graphics card in even simpler terms that is maybe more understandable for the less â€Å"pc-geek† types. A graphics card is a device, a mechanical device, inserted into your computer to help you see graphics and video better, faster and more clearly. In some way or another, your computer has to have a way to display graphics. In general most computers come with a small built in chip in the main part of the computer that allows graphics to be displayed, but it is very weak and doesn’t have any special features. Consequently if you work with a lot of photo- and video-media, or you are a high ranked PC gamer, you would have to go and buy yourselves a good graphics card and have it inserted into your computer. Graphics cards vary from low resolution processing to high resolution processing. Your low resolution graphic cards are usually processed with a memory of either 256 or 512 megabytes of memory (mb) that will take the load off of your computer, that will help your computer display photos and video faster, better and in higher resolution. The graphics card is processed on a printed circuit board on which the components are mounted. These components include: Graphics processing unit, heat sink, video BIOS or firmware, video memory, random access memory Digital-to-Analog Converter, output interfaces, video graphics array, digital face interface, video in video out (VIVO) for s-video, composite video and component video, high definition multimedia interface, display port, motherboard interfaces, fan. We will write a custom essay sample on Technology of Digital Graphics Cards specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now We will write a custom essay sample on Technology of Digital Graphics Cards specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer We will write a custom essay sample on Technology of Digital Graphics Cards specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer When you go out and buy a graphic

Wednesday, March 18, 2020

Sir Sanford Fleming essays

Sir Sanford Fleming essays Sir Sandford Fleming was born on January 7 , 1827 in Kirkcaldy, Scotland. At the age of only 14 Sandford Fleming was a student learning the trade of engineering and surveying from John Sang. On April 24, 1845 Sandford Fleming at only the age of 17 years immigrated into Upper Canada with his brother and cousin. When they arrived to Upper Canada they settled in Peterborough. Richard Birdsall a surveyor then hired Sanford Fleming. Later on Fleming worked with John Stoughton Dennis another surveyor in Weston, so that he could be recertified to be a surveyor, which was a requirement of the Dominion Government. To help generate income before Fleming got his certificate he made maps of Peterborough, Hamilton, Cobourg, and Toronto. Then in 1851 Fleming invented Canadas first stamp. The stamp, which was, called the Threepenny Beaver. In 1852 the Northern Railroad hired Fleming as an assistant engineer. The Northern Railroad was being built to Georgian Bay from Toronto. Fleming and his boss Cumberland did not really get along to well, and in 1855 Cumberland fired Fleming from the Northern Railroad. In 1863 Fleming was hired to survey a route for the Intercolonial Railway. This railway was to connect the Maritimes with the Province of Canada. Fleming was hired as chief engineer of the Intercolonial Railroad. Fleming remained chief engineer of the Railroad until it was completed in 1876. But during the year of 1871 Fleming was appointed the chief engineer of the Canadian Pacific Railway. The CPR was to go all the way through Canada to the Pacific coast. Fleming thought that it would be ideal if he was to survey the land to the Pacific coast to find a suitable route. Then in 1880 Sir Charles Tupper, who was the minister of railways and canals, dismissed Fleming. Sir Charles Tupper dismissed Fleming due to him being considered a political liability be ...

Monday, March 2, 2020

Tula de Hidalgo (Mexico) Toltec Capital City of Tollan

Tula de Hidalgo (Mexico) Toltec Capital City of Tollan The archaeological ruins of Tula (known as Tula de Hidalgo or Tula de Allende) are located in the southwestern part of the Mexican state of Hildalgo about 70 kilometers (45 miles) northwest of Mexico City. The site is located within the alluvial bottoms and adjacent uplands of the Tula and Rosas Rivers, and it lies partially buried beneath the modern town of Tula de Allende. Based on extensive ethnohistorical research by Wigberto Jimenez-Moreno and archaeological investigations by Jorge Acosta, Tula is considered the likely candidate for Tollan, the legendary capital of the Toltec Empire between the 10th and 12th centuries AD. In addition, Tulas construction bridges the Classic and Postclassic periods in Mesoamerica, during the period when the power of Teotihuacan and the southern Maya lowlands were fading, to be replaced by political alliances, trade routes and art styles at Tula, and at Xochicalco, Cacaxtla, Cholula and Chichà ©n Itz. Chronology Tollan/Tula was established during the Epiclassic period, about 750 AD as a fairly small town (ca 3-5 square kilometers or 1.2-1.5 square miles), as the Teotihuacan empire was crumbling. Colonial (after 1550 AD)Late Postclassic (1230-1550 AD)Early Postclassic (900-1230)Epiclassic (750-900) During the height of Tulas power, between AD 900 and 1100, the city included an area of some 13 sq km (5 sq mi), with an estimated population perhaps as high as 60,000. Tulas architecture was set in a large diversity of environments, from a reedy marsh to adjacent hills and slopes; within this varied landscape are hundreds of mounds and terraces, representing residential structures in a planned city scape, with alleys, passageways and paved streets. The heart of Tula was its civic-ceremonial district, called the Sacred Precinct, a large open quadrangular plaza surrounded by two L-shaped buildings, as well as Pyramid C, Pyramid B and the Quemado Palace. The Quemado Palace has three large rooms, sculpted benches, columns and pilasters. Tula is justly famed for its art, including two interesting friezes worth discussing in detail: the Coatepantli Frieze and the Vestibule Frieze. Coatepantli Frieze The Coatepantli Frieze (Mural of the Serpents) is the best known piece of art work at Tula, believed to date to the early Postclassic period. It is a carved into a 2.2 meter (7.5 foot) high free-standing wall running for 40 m (130 ft) along the north side of Pyramid B. The wall seems to channel and restrict pedestrian traffic on the north side, creating a narrow enclosed passageway. It was named coatepantli, which is the Aztec (Nahuatl) word for serpent, by excavator Jorge Acosta. The Coateplantli Friese was made from slabs of local sedimentary stone carved in relief and brightly painted. Some of the slabs were borrowed from other monuments. The frieze is capped by a row of spiral-shaped merlons; and its facade shows several reclining human skeletons intertwined with serpents. Some scholars have interpreted this as a representation of the feathered serpent in pan-Mesoamerican mythology, called Quetzalcoatl; others point to the Classic Maya Vision Serpent. (see Jordan for some interesting discussion). The Frieze of the Caciques (a.k.a. the Vestibule frieze) The Vestibule Frieze, while lesser known than that of the Coateplantli, is no lest interesting. It is a carved, stuccoed and brightly painted frieze that illustrates a line of ornately dressed men walking in a procession, located on the interior walls of Vestibule 1. Vestibule 1 itself is an L-shaped colonnaded hall that links Pyramid B with the main plaza. The hallway had a sunken patio and two hearths, and 48 square pillars supported a roof. The frieze is on a nearly square bench, measuring 94 centimeters (37 inches) high by 108 cm (42 in) wide in the northwest corner of Vestibule 1. The frieze itself is 50 cm x 8.2 m (19.7 in x 27 ft). The 19 men shown in the frieze have been interpreted at various times as local chiefs (caciques), priests or warriors, but based on the architectural setting, composition, costumes and color, these figures represent merchants, people who were engaged in long-distance trade. Sixteen of the 19 figures carry staffs, one appears to wear a backpack, and one carries a fan, all elements associated with travelers (see Kristan-Graham for more). Sources This article is a part of the guide to the Toltec Civilization, and the Dictionary of Archaeology. Castillo Bernal S. 2015. El Anciano Alado del Edificio K de Tula, Hidalgo. Latin American Antiquity 26(1):49-63. Healan DM, Kerley JM, and Bey GJ. 1983. Excavation and Preliminary Analysis of an Obsidian Workshop in Tula, Hidalgo, Mexico. Journal of Field Archaeology 10(2):127-145. Jordan K. 2013. Serpents, skeletons, and ancestors?: the Tula Coatepantli revisited. Ancient Mesoamerica 24(02):243-274. Kristan-Graham C. 1993. The Business of Narrative at Tula: An Analysis of the Vestibule Frieze, Trade, and Ritual. Latin American Antiquity 4(1):3-21. Ringle WM, Gallareta Negron T, and Bey GJ. 1998. The return of Quetzalcoatl: Evidence for the spread of a world religion during the Epiclassic period. Ancient Mesoamerica 9:183-232. Stocker T, Jackson B, and Riffell H. 1986. Wheeled figurines from Tula, Hidalgo, Mexico. Mexicon 8(4):69-73. Stocker TL, and Spence MW. 1973. Trilobal Eccentrics at Teotihuacan and Tula. American Antiquity 38(2):195-199.

Friday, February 14, 2020

Cross cultural management Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 10500 words

Cross cultural management - Essay Example TABLE OF CONTENTS 1. Introduction 4 2. Literature Review 6 2.1. Background research on Leadership 6 2.2. Background Research on Cross Cultural Management 9 2.3. Theory of Hofstede 15 3. Leadership in Egypt 19 3.1. Current Situation 19 3.2. Challenges 20 3.3. Impacts 22 3.4. Implications for Managers in Global Management 25 4. Findings 26 5. Discussion 29 6. Conclusion & Recommendations 32 7. References 34 1. Introduction Leaders are not born, they are made. The most common myth about leadership is the converse of the previous statement, which indeed is creating waves of many more misconceptions amongst those aspiring leaders and entrepreneurs around the world. There was a time when only few men and women dared to question, rebel against odds, voice for the weak and talk for the helpless. But today there is a need for each one of us to dare, rebel, voice and talk, but like leaders and not losers. Andrew Carnegie’s thought provoking statement is worth a note here which states â €Å"No man will make a great leader who wants to do it all himself, or to get all the credit for doing it†. ... If we see the current trends of leadership, there are various personalities who have quoted many inspirational words about leadership and for the future leaders as well. We see Jeff Barnes quoting â€Å"There are no boundaries anymore.† This means the businesses and organizations are looking out for globalization and make their mark all over the world. In the last 10 years the world has seen a fast changes in the business world. When there was economic downturn started in December 2007, many of the interviewees had the thought that it is somewhat different than what was happened 10 years ago. According to Roland Smith’s saying this new environment is regarded as a perpetual whitewater. The Chief Executive Officers (CEO’s) of all the big and renowned organizations have backed the saying of Roland Smith and they were not sure as to how to tackle this changing environment as the equipments are were not available that time. In Egypt the most remarkable monument or st ructure is the Pyramid. If you notice Pyramid, you can see that the tip of it is painted with gold. The reason for that is to get connected with the sun. The Pyramids have always challenged the modern science to build something since the technology and skill sets of the manpower have been advanced with time. Today it has been more than a year since the reign of Dictator Mubarak is ended. Now it is high time for the country to look ahead and reform its social, political and most importantly economic stature. Today the country is in need of a leader who can coach and inspire the nation, which will help in mobilizing the country towards growth and prosperity. The well-known examples of this type of